The most basic thing to learn about photography is also the most advanced concept which can take minutes to learn but years to master. This is called the Exposure Triangle. The combination of the 3 pillars of digital photography which are Aperture, Shutter Speed and ISO. Every DSLR from beginner to professional, have these settings and we have to play with them to capture beautiful images.
It's the opening of the shutter. It is measured in mm and represented by an f-number(f/2, f/5 etc.). The smaller the f-number the bigger the opening. Why is this important? because it is a measure of how much light is allowed to enter through the lens onto the sensor. Aperture value is also associated with Depth of Field which determines how much to blur the background or in technical terms, make the background out of focus. The more the distance of background from the primary subject more blurry it can become and it all depends on the value of the aperture. The higher the f-number the greater is the depth of field and more of the frame is in focus, on the other hand, a smaller f-number narrows the depth of field making only the primary object in focus and background and also the foreground out of focus.
The shutter speed is the measure of time for which the shutter would remain open to allow the light to fall on the sensor. The higher the time the more light comes and the sensor is exposed more. This is very useful under low light conditions where keeping the shutter speed very low can bring in more light and a well-lit image. Just remember to use a tripod while using the camera with low shutter speeds because the camera needs to remain steady for the duration of the shutter time.
ISO is a measure of sensor sensitivity to light. This number quantifies the value of the intensity of light that needs to fall on the sensor to trigger a signal that the light has been captured. The higher the number the low is the intensity threshold. So, in low light situations a higher ISO value is preferred and vice versa. But there is a tradeoff, the higher the ISO more will be the noise in the resulting image. They can be found as grains in an image when shot in low light. So, according to the lighting conditions ISO needs to be played to get the optimum results.
In any situation, any location or under any lighting condition these 3 factors help us to tell our cameras how to take a photo. Here are a few examples to show the effect by varying the exposure triangle.
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